According to Greek mythology, this temple was named after King Erechtheus who once resided there.
The legend also states that it was at this point that the dispute for the possession of the city, between Athena and Poseidon took place, which Athena won. However, the Athenians dedicated a temple to each god in order to maintain a balance. This resulted in the construction of the most unusual building of the Acropolis, a complex architectural project and a masterpiece of Ionic structure, significant parts of which still exist until today.
The temple was erected in 425-406 BC by architect Kallimachos. The eastern side was dedicated to Athena and the west side was dedicated to Poseidon-Erechtheus, Hephaestus, other gods and local heroes. It owes its unusual shape to the facilitation of the worshipping of multiple deities and it originally had a pediment roof and two porches. The roof of the north porch was supported by six Ionic columns and the south, which is the most well-known, was supported by the Karyatides, the six stone maidens, which are a fine example of exceptional beauty and art. Five of the Karyatides are now in the New Acropolis Museum and the sixth is in the British Museum. Cast copies stand in their place. It's worth noting that the area of Erechtheion was considered to be one of the most sacred in all of the Acropolis.