Asklipieio, one of the most famous and important monuments of the island, is built on a hillside surrounded by trees, located near the ancient city of Kos and offers panoramic views of the sea and the coast of Asia Minor.
Tracing investigations began in the late 19th century and the sanctuary came to light in the early 20th century (between 1901 to 1905) by German archaeologist R. Herzog.
Scientific Medicine was developed in Asklipieio of Kos, mainly because of the school that was founded on the island by the father of scientific medicine, Hippocrates. According to the findings, it once operated as a place of worship of the demon healer Paiiona and the father of Asklipieio, Apollo, during the Mycenaean and Geometric periods.
In this space, other gods like Koon were worshiped, while in the 4th century BC with the founding of the city of Kos, the worship of Asklipieio was added and was one of the most significant public worship rituals on the island between the 3rd and 2nd century BC.
The sanctuary's most significant period was during the Hellenistic and Roman era, when it had a nationwide reputation. Indeed, after 242 BC, the citizens of Kos managed to secure the refuge, meaning the protection of the sanctuary in times of war or other hostilities. The Megali Asklipieia, a celebration which hosted athletic and musical competitions with participants from all the cities of Greece took place, was also established then.