Viticulture in Kos boasts a 4,000 year old history. The wines of the island were particularly known since the time of Hippocrates, under which they functioned as a therapeutic agent. He suggested the strong black wine to his patients.

The island's vineyards are mainly located on the northern slopes of Mount Dikaios, in the middle of the island, where today the three wineries of Kos operate. In the 1970s there was a massive shift of the inhabitants of the island's focus, from viticulture to tourism, but in the 1990s organised viticulture began once again and the production of modern wines was back in motion. In 2008 Kos earned its place back on the wine map of Greece with the production of local wines PGE Kos.